As defense secretary he substituted (1506) verso citizens’ militia for the mercenary system then prevailing mediante Italy

Verso member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the Florentine republic and rose rapidly sopra importance. This reform sprang from his conviction, serie forth mediante his major works, that the employment of mercenaries had largely contributed esatto the political weakness of Italy. Machiavelli became acquainted with power politics through his important diplomatic missions. He met Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger bruissement of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. twice and was sent by way of Florence sicuro Louis XII of France (1504, 1510), esatto Pope Julius II (1506), and sicuro Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1507).

The Medicis’ return (1512) to Florence caused his dismissal; con 1513 he was briefly imprisoned and was tortured for his alleged complicity durante per plot against the Medici. Machiavelli retired preciso his country caldo, where he wrote his chief works. He humiliated himself before the Medici per verso vain attempt esatto recover office. When, sopra 1527, the republic was briefly reestablished, Machiavelli was distrusted by many of the republicans, and he died thoroughly disappointed and embittered.

Principal Writings

Machiavelli’s best-known work, Il re [the prince] (1532), describes the means by which verso prince may gain and maintain his power. His „ideal” prince (seemingly modeled on Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger chant of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. ) is a supremely adaptable, amoral, and calculating tyrant who would be able preciso establish verso unified Italian state. The last chapter of the work pleads for the eventual liberation of Italy from foreign rule. Interpretations of The Prince vary: it has been viewed as sincere advice, as verso plea for political office, as verso detached analysis of Italian politics, as evidence of early Italian nationalism, and as political satire on Medici rule. However, the adjective Machiavellian has che razza di sicuro be per synonym for amoral cunning and for justification by power.

Less widely read but more indicative of Machiavelli’s politics is his scholarly Discorsi sulla inizialmente deca di Tito Livio [discourses on the first 10 books of Livy] (1531). Mediante it Machiavelli expounds verso general theory of politics and government that stresses the importance of an uncorrupted political culture and a vigorous political morality. Vaster con conception than The Prince, the Discourses shows clearly Machiavelli’s republican ideals and principles, which are also reflected per his Istorie Fiorentine [history of Florence] (1532), verso historical and literary masterpiece, entirely modern durante concept.

Other works è babel gratis include Dell’arte della ostilita [on the art of war] (1521), which viewed military problems per relation puro politics, and numerous reports and brief works. He also wrote many poems and plays, notably the lively, satiric, and ribald comedy Mandragola [the mandrake], an extremely popular rete informatica first performed con 1520. His correspondence has been preserved and is of great interest. The chief works of Machiavelli are available in several popular English editions.

Bibliography

See P. Constantine, addirittura., The Essential Writings of Machiavelli (2007); biographies by P. Villari (2 vol., tr. 1878), R. Ridolfi (1954, tr. 1963), and M. Vitoli (2000); H. Butterfield, The Statecraft of Machiavelli (1956); S. Anglo, Machiavelli (1970); Ed. Garver, Machiavelli and the History of Prudence (1987); P. S. Donaldson, Machiavelli and the Mystery of State (1989); R. King, Machiavelli: Philosopher of Power (2007); C. Vivanti, Niccolo Michiavelli: An Intellectual Biography (2013); P. Bobbitt, The Garments of Athletique and Palace: Machiavelli and the World That He Made (2013); Verso. Ryan, On Machiavelli: The Search for Glory (2013); M. Viroli, Redeeming „The Prince” (2013); Di nuovo. Benner, Be like the Fox: Machiavelli’s Lifelong Quest for Freedom (2017).

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